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ارائه نظام زیباییشناسی فلسفی- حکمی در معماری اسلامی
|مبانی نظری هنرهای تجسمی
|دوره 6، شماره 1 - شماره پیاپی 11، شهریور 1400، صفحه 42-59 اصل مقاله (745.62 K)
|نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22051/jtpva.2021.34750.1274
|هادی فرهنگدوست* 1؛ علیرضا باوندیان2؛ حسین کوهستانی3
|1کارشناس ارشد معماری اسلامی، دانشکده هنر و معماری اسلامی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام رضا ع، مشهد، ایران.
|2دکتری پژوهش هنر، استادیار دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه نیشابور، نیشابور، ایران
|3دکتری باستان شناسی، استادیار دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.
|سنتگرایی همچون گفتمانی غالب در ابعاد مختلف اجتماعی تا پیش از ظهور دوران مدرن بوده که با طیکردن روند تکامل تدریجی، شالودهای تجربی و دینی داشت. بعد از دوران مدرن و نفی داشتههای وحیانی و سنتهای برخاسته از آن، سنتگرایان فلسفی معاصر با رجعت به اصول سنّت، سعی در ایجاد گفتمانهای پاسخگو به شرایط انسان معاصر کردند. از جمله در هنر و زیباییشناسی مدرن که رابطه شناسی هنر با ادیان ابراهیمی در کلام سنتگرایان، حجم قابلتوجهی از پژوهشهایشان را شامل میشود. هدف این پژوهش، دستیابی به الگویی زیباییشناسانه بر اساس تطبیق دیدگاههای ایشان با حکمت معماری اسلامی است. پژوهش بنیادین و کیفی حاضر، تلاش کرده است شاخصترین دیدگاههای سنتگرایان فلسفی معاصر را از منابع کتابخانهای و به شیوهای تحلیلی - تفسیری دررابطهبا زیباییشناسی، مورد بازشناسی قرار دهد. باتوجهبه اینکه سنتگرایان فلسفی، نمایندگان یکی از تفکرات حکمت اسلامی در معماری نیز هستند، تلاش گردیده با ارائه الگویی گفتمان پایه، بهرهگیری از آن در فرایندهای طراحی یا ارزیابی عناصر و ابنیه معماری باتوجهبه ارزشهای حکمت اسلامی، تسهیل گردد.
|سنتگرایی؛ جاودان خرد؛ زیباییشناسی؛ حکمت؛ معماری اسلامی
|عنوان مقاله [English]
|Presenting a philosophical-wisdom aesthetic system in Islamic architecture
|Hadi Farhangdoust1؛ Alireza Bavandian2؛ hossein koohestani3
|1Master of Islamic Architecture, Faculty of Islamic Art and Architecture, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad. Iran
|2PhD in Art Research, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Arts, Neishabour University, Neishabour, Iran.
|3PhD in Archeology, Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Arts, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran.
|Discursive traditionalism in different areas of society has been before the emergence of modern times, which had an experimental and religious foundation by passing the evolutionary process. After the modern era and the rejection of the values of the preponderance and traditions, the discourse of contemporary philosophical traditionalists was created, which, by receding to the principles of tradition, tried to create discourse responsive to the social conditions of the contemporary man in modern art and aesthetics such as the concept of space and its physical aspect specifically in contemporary architecture. Therefore, the relationship between art and Abrahamic religions, which in the words of the traditionalists, is the source of confidence in the emergence of traditions and the aesthetics system in which they are present, has a significant amount of their research.
In the literature section, is expressed the scope of efforts to match the views of the traditionalists with the field of theoretical principles and foundation architecture, especially in Muslim societies, and it is pointed to the important fact that the way of expressing them is not in accordance with the diverse and changing needs of modern humans.
According to the purpose of this study, at first, the common concepts (as factors and concepts of synonyms) between wisdom and tradition were studied. It means the relationship between "Islamic wisdom" and "the perennial philosophy " in spiritual traditionalism was examined and investigated. Then, the introduction of traditionalists and their distinguished measures in the field of answering the contemporary human questions about the content of their traditions and applications in the contemporary era has been discussed. Based on the results of these studies, it was found that there is a significant relationship between the Islamic traditions of the traditionalists and the Islamic wisdom. The selection of Islamic traditions from the traditions of all societies has been because the traditions have a general concept of culture, from cultural and social functions of the past nations to the traditions of prophets, however, wisdom in every category and period of time includes the interpretation, meaning, and particular field. Therefore, it should have been selected a share common point between these two general concepts, that according to the subject of the article, having the Islamic concept was chosen for selection them.
Next, according to the methodology of the current study, which is a qualitative model (it is based on a background analysis of existing resources and the derivation the of keywords to achieve general votes), the descriptive-analytical method was used to investigate the library resources. The progress of content presentation is as follows: first, the concept system in aesthetics view from the perspective of traditionalists, was presented in three aspects (aesthetics aspect (value system), fullness aspect (spiritual system), objective aspect (system), and it led to creating the formation of a process pattern from this content matching. Then, according to the same model, each part of it was analyzed from the closest views of the Isla mists to Islamic wisdom. Finally, all previous steps about merging, adapting and the content matching between the views of the traditionalists and wisdom in architecture, were presented as a model along with a summary table.
Before reaching the results, adapting aesthetics content in traditionalism and Islamic architecture has been done in conformity with the content. In this way, the perennial philosophy makes sense in three aspects more distinct than in the past. These three aspects are objectivity (manifested in mankind), traditions (by indicators), and religion (invaded in reality).
The key to the term "reality" was selected and introduced as a common method to express the concepts between traditionalists and Islamic architecture wisdom and the needs of the modern architectural society. Because it seems that objection to the concepts of decree and philosophy on relocation will resolve the need of the contemporary architect society to benefit from the theoretical foundations of these two areas. The concept of reality has a major role in modeling and simulation technologies, including building information modeling (BIM) technology. Because all of the theories and methods used in the design process in this software are based on formation and modeling, and that is the fact of architecture. What is currently being sought is that this reality is derived from the real truth and authentic beauty that has divine roots. Meaning that the role of modern technologies is merely a tool to create the above-mentioned reality of divine beauty, reflecting the eternal beauty of the perennial philosophy.
On the other hand, we see a new perspective on the philosophy of science in humanities, including art and architecture, which is based on data theory. Meaning that, we will have a cycle of wisdom, knowledge, information and data in all sciences, in which the methods of production, interpretation and adaptation of science in them are based on two concepts. First, there are different aspects of the reality of the universe, which is a subject of various sciences. And the second is the data and its life cycle in every science. Therefore, having a model to describe and explain the process and cycle of life in any fundamental matter in science is a necessity. Having a real and data-based view means a phenomenological approach.
Therefore, the present study, by understanding the need for a phenomenological view of artistic affairs, has tried to use an ontological framework for the research method. This has led to an increase in the reliability of the research method and a significant increase in the application of the results, especially in the human view of the contemporary scholar, which is considered the traditional society as inefficient and old. As a result, the model about the aesthetics structure at the beginning of the study was completed by a scientific cycle and was presented at the end of it. This complete model is flexible concerning the changes in attitude obtained from acquiring knowledge, and it has determined the place of influence and change in cognitive processes.
In this way, it was tried to facilitate the use of its results in the field of different architecture studies, including in the fields of »design research«, »design process«, »theoretical foundations of architecture« and »evaluation« of elements and architectural contexts according to the Islamic wisdom values. This model can also be viewed as an achievement in other fields of artistic research as it can be used to enter many visible and hidden areas in art research and find the results that are similar in the process of research. It seems that the same method paves the way for achieving common content discourse and content sharing between different fields of art with architecture.
Another important point about this final model is that the process of recognition in it is not linear, and it is not occasional and an immediate matter; while it happens in a gradual evolution. It is also based on logical stages that it is not possible to enter into the next stages or achieve a full understanding of beauty, without paying attention to the results obtained in each sector.
|Traditionalism, Immortality of wisdom, Aesthetics, Wisdom, Islamic Architecture
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