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مطالعه تطبیقی شعائر، قاببندی و نقوش مسکوکات ادوار حکومت نادرشاه افشار و کریم خان زند
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|مقاله 8، دوره 7، شماره 2 - شماره پیاپی 14، دی 1401، صفحه 109-124 اصل مقاله (887.88 K)
|نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22051/jtpva.2022.40048.1401
|عضو هیات علمی، استادیار، گروه فرش، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.
|افشاریان و زندیان سهم اندکی از منابع مکتوب تاریخ هنر ایران دارند. توجه بیشتر به دستاوردهای هنری صفویان و قاجار یکی از دلایل مغفول ماندن هنر دوران افشار و زند است. سکه به عنوان وجه مبادلات تجاری میان اقوام و ملل علاوه بر بُعد اقتصادی از منظر فرهنگی و هنری نیز قابل مطالعه است. به ویژه با گذر زمان سکه، اسکناس و سایر ابزارهای معاملاتی کارکردی فراتر از نقش اولیه خود یافته و به مثابه سند، اطلاعاتی در بردارد. مطالعات مقدماتی این پژوهش نشان از تفاوت شکلی و محتوایی شعائر، قاببندی و نقوش سکههای اعصار نادرشاه افشار و کریمخان زند داشت. با این حساب، درک شباهتها و تفاوتهای سه مولفه نوشتار، قاببندی و نقوش سکههای دو دوره ذکر شده هدف اصلی پژوهش است. این پژوهش از نوع کیفی و روش انجام آن مرکب از رویکردی توصیفی و تحلیلی است. گردآوری اطلاعات بهشیوه کتابخانهای و نمونههای مطالعاتی با توجه به میزان دسترسی انتخاب شده است. روش نمونهگیری غیراحتمالی بوده و با توجه به نمونههای موجود و منطبق با سنجههای مساله پژوهش از میان سکههای ضرب شده در اصفهان، شیراز، تبریز، مازندران و قزوین موارد تعیین شد. یافتهها نشان از آن دارد که، نگرش و سیاست هر دو پادشاه در شکلدهی نظام نوشتاری و تصویری سکهها نقشی موثر داشته است. نادرشاه افشار ملهم از سیاست خارجی رفتار نموده و کریمخان زند سعی در تحکیم پیوند با سنت شاهان صفوی داشته است. آگاهی از میزان تنوع شعائر در مسکوکات نادرشاه افشار و قاببندی در دوره کریمخان زند و شباهت در نقوش سکههای هر دو دوره اصلیترین یافته پژوهش است.
|سکه؛ کریم خان زند؛ نادرشاه افشار؛ نقوش؛ قاببندی؛ شعائر
|عنوان مقاله [English]
|Comparative Study of Legends, Framing and Patterns of Coins during the Reigns of Nader Shah Afshar and Karim Khan Zand
|Assistant Professor, Faculty member at Department of Carpet, Faculty of Applied Arts, University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
|Afsharid and Zand arts have long been neglected as the artistic achievements of the Safavids and the Qajar in Iran have been under the spotlight. As the currency for business transactions among nations, coins can be studied from a cultural and artistic perspective in addition to their economic dimension. As the time passes, coins, banknotes, and other tools for transactions have gained a function beyond their initial purpose and as documents, they contain valuable information. Preliminary studies showed the difference in the shape and content of legends, framing and patterns of coins minted during the reigns of Nader Shah Afshar and Karim Khan Zand in Iran. Accordingly, this comparative study aimed to examine the inscription, framing and patterns of coins minted during the Afsharid and Zand periods and analyze the roots of their differences. The central question was raised as follows: What were the influential elements in the formation of the legends on coins during the reigns of Nader Shah Afshar and Karim Khan Zand? In this regard, the main purpose of the study was understanding the similarities and differences of the coins in their inscriptions, framing and patterns. There is a lacuna of research on the works remaining from some historical eras although they are temporally closer to the contemporary era. As artistic texts, coins can be read within different discourses. There is an evident change in the legends, framing and patterns of coins minted during Afsharid and Zand periods in Iran. In addition to providing a social study through analysis of coins, the significance of this study lies in expanding the specialized knowledge in the neglected artistic fields of 17th century AD/12th century AH in Iran. Therefore, the analysis of legends, framing and patterns during the Naderi and Zand eras can fill this research gap. It seems that various socio-cultural aspects of the Afsharid and Zand eras were reflected in the various dimensions of the coins minted by the shahs at the time.
This qualitative descriptive-analytical study was conducted through library research and observing the coins remaining from the reigns of Nader Shah Afshar and Karim Khan Zand. The writing system (legends) and the visual system (framing and patterns) were examined and the coins were studied comparatively to find the similarities and differences of the samples. The data were collected through library research and the studied samples were selected through convenience sampling. Through non-probability sampling and according to the components of the study (legends, framing, and patterns), a total of 10 coins were selected from the coins minted in Isfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz, Mazandaran, and Qazvin, Iran. The collected index cards were reliable instruments for this study.
The comparative study of the legends on the coins minted during the reigns of Nader Shah Afshar and Karim Khan Zand indicated considerable differences in the writing systems of the eras. Given Iran-India relations during the reign of Nader Shah Afshar and his military campaign reaching to the border of India, Iran’s art was influenced by Indian art and culture at that time. However, Karim Khan Zand was much more influenced by ancient Persian arts, Safavid art and even the actions of temporary rulers before him in the field of coinage than the artistic and cultural models of the Naderi era. It seems that Nader Shah Afshar and Karim Khan Zand saw coins as tools to propagate religious rites and political beliefs. It is interesting to note the variety and development of rites in Naderi coins during his twelve-year reign. Only in the limited studied coins in five mints of Isfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz, Qazvin and Mazandaran during the Naderi era, the legends were selected variously as in the following.
“Sekkeh bar zar kard nām-e saltanat-rā dar jahan/Nader-e Iran zamin o Khosrow-e giti-setan” [The Nader of the land of Iran, the sultan who seizes the world, coin in precious metal broadcast the name of this sultanate throughout the world].
“Hast soltan bar salatin-e jahan / Shah-e shahan, Nader-e sahibqiran” [He is the ruler over all the rulers of the world/Nader, the king of the kings, the owner of the Qiran].
“Az Khorasan sekkeh bar zar shod be toufiq-e khoda/Nosrat emdad-e shah-e din Ali-Musa Reza” [The coin was struck in Khorasan with blessing of God/With help from the king of religion Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (al-Rida)].
On the contrary, only a single legend was inscribed on the similar coins during the reign of Karim Khan Zand: “Shod aftab o mah zar o sim dar jahan/az sekke-ye emam bar haqq saheb zaman” [Of the coin of Imam Zaman /Sun and the moon became gold and silver]. Selection of such a legend on Karim Khan coins is rooted in his policy. Karim Khan outwardly kept his links with Ismail III, the last of the Safavids, and the ulema. To gain the political legitimacy he needed to continue his rule, he assumed the title “Wakil-al Raʿāyā” [deputy of the people] and minted coins with the name of the twelfth Shia Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi (Ṣāhib az-Zamān). In this way, he received the support of the clerics and the ulema to gain legitimacy. Karim Khan tried to continue the discourse of Mahdism propounded during Safavid era. His selected legend on the coins led them to be known as “Ṣāhib az-Zamān” coins. Adherence to this legend could indicate the universality and rootedness of the belief and discourse of Mahdism during the Zand era. Such an approach may have been for the revival of Mahdism, which is one of the initial principles in the formation of the Safavid government, or the need for the support of a savior after the hardships and sufferings the Iranian society went through following the fall of the Safavids. Although these causes may seem correct, lack of social, religious, and political base of the Zands within the Iranian society and Karim Khan’s attempt to gain the trust of the ulema and clerics account for him using the “Ṣāhib az-Zamān” legends on coins.
The comparative study of the writing system of coins during the reigns of Nader Shah and Karim Khan showed that the legends had more variety during the Afsharid peiod. The forming principle of inscriptions on Naderi coins were representing Iranianism, displaying power, and endeavoring to eliminate Shia conflicts. However, Karim Khan sought to continue the tradition of legend selection similar to the past rulers, particularly the Safavids.
The framing as the overall structure and form of Afsharid coins minted in five mints under study can be categorized into three groups including “pearl-shaped”, ‘simple circle”, and “Tughra”. On the other hand, the framing had more variety in the coins of Karim Khan’s era for which seven types were identified: “Stigma-shaped”, “pearl-shaped”, “simple pomegranate flower”, “four-armed”, “crescent-shaped pomegranate flower”, “citron-shaped with stigma”, and “epigraphic”.
The patterns of the coins from both periods were pretty much similar and had no substantial difference. However, the decorations and patterning of Karim Khan coins were greater in number compared with Naderi coins. Two types of patterns, namely connected and broken, were identified in terms of the connectedness of the patterns, and in the studied coins, there were only floral and geometrical patterns. Floral patterns, particularly simple round flowers (seven-, six-, five-, four-, and three-petal flowers) and geometrical patterns such as simple small circles were the most frequent patterns observed on the coins of both periods. Arabesque pattern was observed only on a Karim Khan coin minted in Shiraz. The comparative study of the coins revealed greater variety in the legends of Naderi era coins compared with those of Karim Khan era. A single legend or maximum two types of legends were identified for the Zand period. Framing had more variety in Karim Khan coins. The coins from both periods were most similar in their patterns. The only difference was that connected and highly-decorated patterns were found more on the coins from Karim Khan’s reign. Overall, simple round flowers in floral patterns and simple small circles in geometrical patterns were the most frequent patterns found on the studied coins.
|Coin, Karim Khan Zand, Nader Shah Afshar, Patterns, Framing, Legends
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